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Indicators


Respiratory systemCOPD

COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is progressive disease that affects the brain, thus causing difficulty in breathing. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD and the indications include:

• Barrel Chest-change in the shape of the thorax

• Wheezing

• Increased expiratory phase of breathing

• Decreased heart and lung sounds (lung hyperinflamation)

• Severe cough from respiratory infection

• Cyanosis –described as bluish discoloration of the skin due to poor supply of oxygen. Common places for cyanosis to appear are the lips, tongue, nail beds and earlobes.

• Clubbing of the fingers- is an indicator of long-term oxygen deprivation, causing the nail bed to curve downward.

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