Autoimmune attack: In people with type 1 diabetes mellitus the insulin-producing beta cells are less in number leading to the deficiency of insulin. This decrease in number can be due to T- Cell mediated autoimmune attack. This type of diabetes is called as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The exact cause is unknown.
Genetic Defects of the Beta Cell: Genetic defects of the beta cell cause several forms of diabetes. Out of all the types of genetic defects causing diabetes monogenic form of diabetes is commonly found. This is the result of mutations in a single gene which leads to the reduction in insulin production. The gene mutation can be inherited. In certain cases it can develop spontaneously.
The two main forms of monogenic diabetes are NDM and MODY.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is found during the adolescence or early adulthood. Sometimes it can remain silent and undiagnosed till later age. The mutation reduces the ability of insulin production by the beta cells.
Diabetes Caused by Diseases of the Pancreas: Injuries to the pancreas can be caused due to trauma or other disease like pancreatitis, infection and cancer of the pancreas.
Diabetes Caused by Endocrinopathies: Diabetes is also reported due to elevated level of certain hormones like growth hormone in acromegaly, cortisol in Cushing’s syndrome, glucagon in glucagonoma and epinephrine in pheochromocytoma.
Diabetes Caused by Infections: Several infections are related to the occurrence of diabetes they are congenital rubella, coxsackievirus B, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and mumps.
Diabetes risk factors include
• Habitual physical inactivity
• Polycystic ovary syndrome
• Previously identified impaired glucose tolerance
Diabetes is known to lead to many other diseases like,
• Heart Disease and Stroke: In the diabetic patients changes in blood vessels are seen. The blood vessel can become thicker and this makes the passage more narrow resulting in difficulty in blood flow.These changes in the blood vessels can lead to heart problems or stroke.
• Diabetic Neuropathies: Diabetes can lead to a family of nerve disorders. Diabetes can lead to nerve damage in the body.
• Diabetic Retinopathy: Elevated blood glucose and blood pressure can cause swelling and weakening of the blood vessels which damages the tiny blood vessels in the eyes. Sometimes the blood vessels also clog not allowing enough blood to pass. This can lead to loss of eye sight.
• Kidney problem: Diabetes is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. Diabetes and high blood pressure can cause damage to your kidneys over time.
• Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a condition where the nerves to the stomach are damaged and stop working. The vagus nerve controls the activity of the digestive tract with respect to the food movement. When the vagus nerve is damaged the muscles of the stomach do not work properly. This decreases the movement of food in the stomach. The vagus nerve is damaged because of high glucose in blood.
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