Kidney stones are relatively a common problem, characterized by crystal minerals (calculi) deposit inside the kidney. The term Nephrolithiasis is used for the people having calculi in the kidneys. Urine normally contains chemicals like magnesium, citrate and pyrophosphate to prevent forming the stones but low level of these inhibitors results in the formation of kidney stones.
Kidney stones typically leave the body through the passage of urine. If the stones grow in size of 2-3 millimeters it can cause obstruction of the ureter. Stones may also pass out of the kidney, become lodged in ureter and cause severe pain that begins in the lower back and radiates to the groin.
They are various types of Kidney stones which contains different combination of chemicals.The most common type of stone contains calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. More rarely, struvite stones are produced by urea-splitting bacteria in people with urinary tract infections, and uric acid stones are produced by the people with metabolic abnormalities, cystine stones where cystine can build up in the urine to form a stone.