Menopause is the time in the womens life when her menstrual period stops. It is a part of biological process that occurs for most of the women between the ages 40-50. Menopause occurs as ovaries produce lower levels of natural sex hormones like estrogen (which controls cycle of ovulation) and progesterone (which controls menstruation).
There are four stages of menopause.
• Premenopause - it refers to womens reproductive life from first to last menstrual period.
• Perimenopause - it is a transitional stage of 2-10 years before complete cessation of menstrual period and is characterized by hormone fluctuations. This stage is usually experienced by people between 40 – 55 years.
• Menopause - it is the stage where women has last period. In this stage ovaries stop producing eggs and a woman is no longer able to be pregnant. It is confirmed by 12 consecutive months without menstrual period.
• Postmenopause - it is the stage after last menstrual period. It begins when 12 months have fully passed since the last menstrual period.
In human females who still have a uterus and who are pregnant or lactating post menopause is identified by permanent absence of monthly periods. In women without uterus menopause is identified by high level of FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone).
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