Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer that generally begins in the cells of immune system. The lymphatic system is the part of immune system which contains lymph vessels, lymph nodes. So usually NHL disease begins when the lymphocyte or B cell becomes abnormal. These abnormal cells divide and make copies of it and finally they result in the formation of mass of tissue called tumour.
B- Cell lymphoma - These make up about 85 % of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The most common types are
• Diffuse large B- cell lymphoma
• Follicular lymphoma
Other types which are less common are
• Burkitt lymphoma
• Mantle cell
• Small lymphocytic lymphoma
• Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma
• Extranodal marginal zone B-cell
• Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma
• Mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma
T- Cell lymphoma - These make up about 15% of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. These are less common, various types are
• Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
• Subcutaneous panniculitis
• Enteropathy type T-cell lymphoma
• Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type
• Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas
• Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
• Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified
NHL is divided into four stages based upon the tumor burden. They are
First Stage - in this NHL is limited to one lymph node group like neck, groin, under arm etc.
Second Stage - in this NHL is limited to two lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm.
Third Stage - in this NHL is in two lymph node groups, with/without partial involvement of an extra nodal organ or site above and below the diaphragm.
Fourth Stage - in this NHL is extensive in one organ or site, with/without NHL in distant lymph nodes.