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Diseases » Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is a medical condition, which leads to loss of vision in the macula (center for visual field) and damage to retina. Retina is an inner layer of eye that contains nerves responsible for communication of sight and behind retina Choroid present responsible for blood supply to retina. If the macular degeneration begins with characteristic yellow deposits in macula called drusen between retinal pigment epithelium and underlying choroid. People with drusen develop age related macular degeneration (AMD).

Types: Macular degeneration is of two forms:

Dry form - it is the most common type and accounts for 85-90 % of cases. In this extracellular waste products from metabolism form yellow deposits called drusen and accumulate under retina between RPE (Retinal pigment epithelium) layer and Bruchs membrane that supports the retina. Drusen is found often in eyes of older people. It is of following stages,

 • Early - in this stage there is no loss of vision and patients have small or few medium sized drusen.

 • Intermediate - in this stage a blurry spot may appear in the centre of visual field and patients have many medium sized and more large drusen.

 • Advanced - in this stage large blurry spot occurs at center of visual field and becomes larger and darker and leads to complete loss of vision. Patients exhibit large number of drusen deposits and break down of RPE, photoreceptor cells and supporting tissue of retina.

Wet form - it accounts for 10% of the cases. In this blood vessels under macula and RPE die. Bruchs membrane begins to break down near drusen deposits and new blood vessels grow and this growth is called neovascularization. These blood vessels are very fragile, leak fluid and blood resulting in scary of macula and severe damage.

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