Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease. It is characterized by fibrosis leads to formation of scar tissue, thickness of the skin. It belongs to group of diseases that cause growth of abnormal connective tissue, proteins that help in supporting the skin and organs. It also causes inflammation, pain in joints, muscles.
Scleroderma is seen in both men and women. It is seen more common in women (80%) than men. It is usually seen in adults and rare in children. It usually starts at the age of 35-45years.
Types: Scleroderma is mainly of two types
Localized scleroderma - it affects only to some parts and is not progressive. It is of following types:
• Morphea - in this reddish patches are seen on skin usually on stomach, chest, face,arms, legs, face with violet borders.
• Localized Morphea - it is seen as plaques with few centimeters in diameter. It occurs in both men and women but more common in women. It can also occur in children also.
• Pansclerotic Morphea - it affects motions of joints.
• Linear - in this type scleroderma appears as single lines or band. This usually occurs in children of 10 years.
• Raynaud’s phenomenon- hands or feet turn white, cold, blue and numbness due to narrowing of blood vessels of hands or feet.
• Esophageal dysfunction- loss of normal esophagus movement.
• Sclerodactyly- deposition of excessive collagen that lead to thickening of skin.
• Telangiectasis- appearance of red spots due to swelling of tiny blood vessels.