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Diseases » Attention Deficit Hperactivity Disorder




Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by coexistence of attentional problems and hyperactivity. ADHD is also a developmental disorder in which certain traits such as impulse control lag in development, this developmental lag has been estimated to range from 3 to 5 years.

ADHD is a common chronic disorder in children with 30 to 50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5% of children globally with symptoms starting before seven years of age.

Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments. Prevalence rates seem to vary by community, with some research indicating that larger cities may have rates as high as 10-15%.

Types:

ADHD is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and antisocial disorder. It further classified into three sub types they include:

• Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive

   - Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.

   - Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.

• Predominantly inattentive

   - The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.

   - Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice symptoms of ADHD.

• Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive


   - Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.

   - Most children have the combined type of ADHD.




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