The ankle joint/ talocrural is a gliding synovial hinge joint consisting of tibia, fibula, talus and calcaneus bones. The distal tibia and fibula articulate with proximal talus and calcaneus bone in foot. Ankle joint is made up of 3 separate joints (talocrural joint, inferior tibiofibular joint, subtalar/ true ankle joint).
• Ankle injury may occur due to Sudden twist/fall, Wearing inappropriate shoes/high heels, Walking /running on an uneven surface, Overweight people, Stepping in a hole, Sports injuries, Inversion fractures, Eversion fractures, Avulsion fracture, Ligament sprain, Muscle spasm.
• Pain, Swelling, Soreness, Bruising, Stiffness near the ankle and leg.
• Pain and uncomfortableness while walking/ ankle movements.
• X-ray and MRI
NOTE: The treatment to the fractures, severe pain and post-operative cases should be followed by the advice of the doctor.
• R I C E treatment program is to be followed for pain reduction.
1. Rest the ankle and stop weight bearing/walkin. Using of crepe bandage while walking gives stability and reduces swelling if present.
2. Ice application to the painful area is to be done for 15-20 min with certain gap.
3. Elevation of the knee joint helps reduce swelling and induce healing.
• Analgesics, Anti-inflammatory drugs, Cortisone injections given under doctor’s supervision.
• Joint mobilization, Soft tissue massage, Electrotherapy modalities done by the physiotherapist.
• Strengthening exercises
1. Toe raises: Stand at the edge of step. Raise the heel standing on your toes in a controlled manner.
2. Heel and toe walking: Walk on the toes and heels alternatively for 1 min.
3. Ankle circles: Lie on the back with legs straight and slowly bend your knee and grasp with your hands. Then move your ankle in clockwise and anti clockwise direction without knee movement.
4. Ankle pumping: Lie on the back with legs straight and knee bent. Then pull your ankle towards you and away from you.
• Mobility exercises
1. Flexion and extension
2. Inversion and Eversion
• Balance exercises
1. One –leg balance
2. Step-up and down on balance board
3. Lateral step up and down on balance board
• Plyometric exercises
1. Single Leg Hops
2. Single Leg Spot Jumps
3. Reactive Spot Jumps
• Jogging, Figure of eight, Box-runs, Calf stretches.